Indus Valley | Clues to an Ancient Civilization, National Geographic

Nearly 5,000 years ago as Bronze Age civilizations developed in Mesopotamia and Egypt, great cities arose along the flood plains of the Indus and Saraswati (Ghaggar-Hakra) Rivers in present day Pakistan and India.

Named after Harappa in Pakistan, the first of its cities to be excavated, the Harappan civilization was once considered an offshoot of Mesopotamian culture. Archeological findings have shown, however, that Harappan culture actually predates its Mesopotamian counterpart by 200 years. These findings prove once and for all that the ancient urban civilizations in the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Egypt developed independently.

Indus Valley civilization was highly organized and very successful. It was home to some of the first planned cities, the birthplace of one of the first written languages, …

Indus Valley | Clues to an Ancient Civilization, National Geographic

Nearly 5,000 years ago as Bronze Age civilizations developed in Mesopotamia and Egypt, great cities arose along the flood plains of the Indus and Saraswati (Ghaggar-Hakra) Rivers in present day Pakistan and India.

Named after Harappa in Pakistan, the first of its cities to be excavated, the Harappan civilization was once considered an offshoot of Mesopotamian culture. Archeological findings have shown, however, that Harappan culture actually predates its Mesopotamian counterpart by 200 years. These findings prove once and for all that the ancient urban civilizations in the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Egypt developed independently.

Indus Valley civilization was highly organized and very successful. It was home to some of the first planned cities, the birthplace of one of the first written languages, and thriving in 1,500 settlements spread over 280,000 square miles—an area twice as large as Egypt or Mesopotamia—for 900 years.

The town of Harappa flourished during this period because of its location at the convergence of several trade routes between the mountains to the north and the coastal area along the Arabian Sea.

Indus valley communities are within a days walk of each other, had the first known sewer systems, standardized mud brick structures, systems of trade and measure, seals (credit cards), and other inventions that exist to this day. Recently in Gujarat after an extended drought caused deaths from a shortage of water, emergency workers and heavy equipment were brought in to build a temporary reservoir. One of the bulldozers ran into the corner of a huge reservoir, constructed during ancient times, that was by far superior to anything the locals have today.

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